Reproductive Disorders and Diseases in Pigs


Anaphrodisias

When the sow does not come on heat

Symptoms

  • No heat signs; this could be caused by low body weight due to poor feeding,
  • Overweight, mineral deficiency, intestinal worms, chronic disease,
  • The animal has just given birth, heavy infestation with parasites

Prevention

  • Improve feeding of mineral-rich feeds.
  • Regularly deworm your animals.
  • Allow the female to stay with the boar.

Treatment

  • Gilts should not be treated at all because they may show anaphrodisias after every litter, if this hormone is used Sows should be treated on the same day as weaning, and in very severe cases, 3 weeks after weaning
  • Repeating treatment is of no use

Leptospirosis

Symptoms

  • Fever, anorexia, diarrhoea, bloody urine, nervous symptons caused by meningitis.
  • Abortion in last trimester.
  • In sows which are affected later, weak piglets are born.
  • Mummified and macerated foetuses are common in the litters.
  • Infertility associated with venereal spread may be responsible for repeat breeders.

Prevention and treatment

  • Elimination of mites and rats and other rodents.
  • Vaccination and hygienic measures. Vaccines are not available for all types of
  • The diseases and vaccination may not prevent bloody urine.
  • Treat all sows with injection or streptomycin before serving.
  • Use antibiotibics especially streptomycin for all ages.

Brucellosis

Symptoms

  • Anorexia, fever, stiff legs, occasional lameness, early abortion (returns to oestrus 5 - 8 weeks after service as a result of infection of service)
  • Infection later in pregnancy gives rise to litter with mummified, still born or weak piglets.
  • Bloody vulva discharge and endometritis.
  • Retained placenta.
  • Boars usually develop orchitis (inflammation of one or both testicles) and epididymitis within seven days of infection.
  • The testicles are swollen and painful and permanent sterility can be the result.

Prevention and treatment

  • Prevention is based on hygienic measures and purchase of stock from clean herds only.
  • Never treat by antibiotics.
  • No treatment/vaccination is 100% effective
  • Slaughter all animals and do restocking. Restocking should be after one month.

Uterine Prolapsed

Symptoms

  • The appearance of the uterus outside the vulva.

Prevention and treatment

  • Uterine prolapsed reduction is often not possible since it is very traumatic and the best therapy is to amputate the whole uterus. However 50% of sows do not survive this operation, therefore slaughter should be considered.

Mastitis

Bacterial infection causes an inflammation of the mammary organ and results in changes in milk production. These bacteria enter the wounds in the udder.

Symptoms

  • Swollen, hot and painful udder.
  • Absence or reduction of milk in the affected udder.
  • Sow refuses to suckle her piglets. As a result, piglets squeal due to hunger.
  • Sow has depression and often fever.

Prevention

  • Provide adequate bedding
  • Keep pig pens clean, dry and free of sharp objects, clip milk teeth of baby pigs.

Treatment

  • Gently massage the affected udder with lukewarm water.
  • Do not allow the young to suck milk from the infected sow.
  • Remove the milk from the infected udder and discard.
  • Separate sow from piglets and reduce access to teats (allow a few piglets to suckle at a time). If possible, foster piglets to lactating mothers.
  • Use antibiotics. Inject penicillin-streptomycin into the muscle of hip or nec.

Endometritis (bacteria)

Symptoms

  • Vulval discharge of virginal or uterine origin during urination.
  • In case of metrititis, fever and agalactia may occur.

Prevention and treatment

  • Antimicrobial by injection or locally by inigation of the uterus and vagina, oxytocin can be given to stimulate uteric contractions once or twice a day.
  • Hygiene.
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