Effects of Organic Farming


Effects of Organic Farming on Crop Productivity

Increasing crop yields by adding organic matter to the soil is a well-known procedure. Organic materials are used to improve grain and straw yields in field crops. Organic fertilizer application resulted in a substantially higher grain and straw yields than unfertilized fields, according to reports. Organic farming increased grain yield significantly, and the benefits of organic farming to developed countries (environmental conservation, biodiversity enhancement, and reduced energy use and CO2 emissions) and developing countries (environmental protection, biodiversity enhancement, and reduced energy use and CO2 emissions) have been well documented (sustainable resources use, increased crop yield without over-reliance on costly inputs, and environmental and biodiversity protection).

 

Many studies have found that earthworm activity is higher in organically controlled fields than in inorganic agriculture. Crop production under organic farming is equivalent to that under traditional farming in low-input agriculture. In low-potential areas, an agro-economic analysis of growing maize with compost and liquid manure top dressing showed substantially better results than existing traditional farmer practices of applying manure and mineral fertilizers together. The yields of maize grain were 11–17% higher than those obtained using traditional methods.


Crop productivity in an organically controlled field is lower in the first year than in subsequent years, as soil fertility levels rise over time as organic materials are introduced to the method. Over time, the use of organic fertilizers was found to result in a steady increase in grain yield. The higher premium prices of organically grown crops in the markets offset the expense of lower yields with higher inputs.
Vegetables are highly responsive to organic sources of nutrients and profitable to farmers. Vermicomposting application of 15 kg per square meter gave the highest yield in tomato crop, chili, carrots, and sweet pepper.  The addition of organic amendments and casting of earthworms to soil also proved effective in controlling diseases.

Effects of Organic Farming on Quality Parameters of Crops


An experiment was performed to determine the effect of vermicomposted vegetable waste on the biochemical characteristics of crops, and it was discovered that the protein content was higher. The carbohydrate content of the vermicomposted treatment was higher. The amount of chlorophyll in the plants was measured and found to be higher than inorganic fertilizers. In another experiment, it was found that tubers from organic potato cropping have high enough tuber dry matter concentrations for processing into fries without affecting the texture of the fries and that using FYM alone increased the economic yield and quality parameters such as hulling percentage, milling percentage, protein, and amylose content.


Organically grown potatoes produced 66% of the conventional crop, while non-organically grown crops produced 47%. Some cultivars are grown with mineral fertilizer ingested 37.0 kg/ha of nitrogen from the organic crop (tubers and foliage) and 50.5 kg/ha of nitrogen from the organic crop (tubers and foliage). Although the nitrogen content of conventional crops' foliage increased, the difference in nitrogen content of organic and conventional tubers was not important. The effect of foliar organic fertilizers on the quality and economics of chili was studied, and the ascorbic acid content was found to be the highest.


Effects of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility


After decomposition, organic matter releases macro-and micronutrients into the soil solution, which are then accessible to the plants, resulting in increased uptake. By manipulating soil properties over time, organic farming was able to maintain higher crop production while also improving soil quality and productivity. Organic and low-input farming practices were found to result in an increase in organic biomass, soluble phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, and pH, as well as a reserve pool of stored nutrients and a relatively stable EC level after four years.


Composting takes a long time and results in a significant loss of organic materials as CO2 or does not add to the organic reservoir. Without manure, the pH of the soil is raised, and the population of broadleaf and grassy weeds is decreased. In the rice-wheat cropping system, soil organic matter degradation reduced nutrient supplying capability, especially on soils with high initial soil organic matter content. Organic farming improved soil physicochemical properties as well as organic matter content and nutrient lability. Carbonaceous materials improved manure's composting characteristics while also lowering its water content.


Finally, the drop in soil reaction may be attributed to organic compounds introduced to the soil in the form of green and root biomass, which decompose to create more humus and organic acids. As compared to inorganic fertilizers alone, the supply of nitrogen from cow dung manure, neem cake, and composed crop residue greatly increased the organic carbon over the initial value. However, after five cropping cycles under organic and integrated nutrient approaches, the supply of phosphorus and potassium showed no noticeable improvement.


Conclusion
Organic farming can produce high-quality food without compromising the health of the soil or the environment. There is a need to define suitable crops/products for organic products that meet foreign market demands on a regional basis. Because of its efforts to ensure food and nutritional protection, the country as a whole cannot afford to go organic at the same time. This will generate a lot of job opportunities and bring prosperity and stability to the country.
 

Organic Farming
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