Cattle Diseases and Control 


When exposed to that infectious agent, the animal will not suffer from that disease. 
Farmers routinely vaccinate against the following common diseases: 

Lumpy Skin Disease 
Cattle are vaccinated between August and October and the vaccination is repeated annually. 

Brucellosis (Contagious Abortion) 
Animals between 3 and 8 months are vaccinated once only. Bulls and pregnant animals should not be vaccinated. Also, avoid using antibiotics at the same time when vaccinations are made. 

Anthrax 
Cattle are vaccinated annually in endemic areas. 

Tick Borne Diseases 
Animals are vaccinated in winter and the vaccine protects for the entire life of the animal. 

Trypanosomosis 
Cattle are vaccinated annually using Samorin.

Common diseases 

Tick borne diseases 

Gall Sickness (Anaplasmosis)

Occurrence 

It is common in summer. Old animals are highly susceptible to infection. 

Clinical Signs 
• Fever 
• Loss of appetite, weakness and incoordination 
• Pale mucous membranes and jaundice 
• Increased frequency of urination and the urine is normally golden yellow or amber coloured 
• Constipation, and at times the dung is covered with mucous 

Postmortem 
• Jaundice (yellow discolouration of mucous membranes and of whole carcass 
• Watery blood 
• Spleen and liver are enlarged. The liver is friable and yellow orange in colour 
• Gall bladder is distended with thick bile, hence the common name of the disease 
• Rectum contents are dry and faeces are covered with mucous 

Diagnosis 
• History 
• Clinical signs 
• Postmortem findings 
• Identification of parasite on peripheral smears 

Treatment OxytetracycIines 
Imidocarb diproprionate (irnizol) 

Control 
• Dipping 
• Vaccinations 

Red Water (Bovine Babesiosis) 

Occurrence 
It is common in summer and older animals are more prone to get the infection than young animals. The causative agent, which is a protozoan, is transmitted by blue ticks. 

Clinical Signs 
• fever 
• loss of appetite, dullness and staring coat 
• laboured breathing 
• pale or yellow mucous membranes 
• red urine 
• nervous signs 

Postmortem 
• Pale to yellow carcass and mucous membranes 
• Red urine in the bladder 
• Enlarged spleen 

Diagnosis 
• Clinical signs 
• Postmortem 
• Parasite identification on peripheral smears, spleen smears or brain crush smears 

Treatment 
• Diminazine aceturate (Veri ben or Berenil) 

Control 
• Dipping 
• Vaccinations 

January Disease (Theleriosis) 

Occurrence 
The disease is common in summer between the months of December and March with most cases being observed in January hence the name of the disease. The disease is transmitted by brown ear ticks. Young cattle are more prone to get the infection than older animals. Deaths are higher in exotic breeds than in indigenous breeds. 

Clinical signs 
• The disease is usually fatal fever 
• Swelling of lymph nodes 
• Loss of appetite 
• Lacrimation and cloudiness of the eyes 
• Listlessness 
• Terminally there is laboured breathing and froth exuding from the nose and the animal collapses and dies. 

Postmortem 
• Generalized swelling of the lymph nodes 
• Froth in windpipe and fluid in the lungs 
• Cloudy eyes 
• Abomasal wall is swollen and haemorrhagic ulcers may be seen 

Diagnosis 
• History 
• Clinical signs and postmortem findings 
• Parasite identification on lymph node and spleen smears 

Treatment 
• Butalex 
• Clexon 

Control 
• Dipping 
• Vaccination 

Heartwater 
Occurrence 
It is common during the rainy season. The disease is transmitted by bont ticks. Young stock can resist the disease. Exotic breeds are highly susceptible. 

Clinical signs 
• Fever 
• Loss of appetite, depression and laboured breathing 
• Nervous signs: exaggerated blinking of eyelids, twitching of the eyes, walking in circles and a high stepping gait, convulsions lying on one side with limbs making running movements followed by coma and death 
• The disease can also cause sudden death 

Postmortem 

• Fluid in heart sac, chest and occasionally in abdominal cavity 
• Oedematous lungs and froth in the trachea 
• Enlarged spleen 
• Haemorrhage on surface of lung and in trachea. 

Diagnosis 

• History 
• Clinical signs 
• Parasite identification on brain crush smears 

Treatment 

It is effective during the early stages of the disease. When the animal is recumbent the drug can be given intravenously to have a reasonable chance of success. The drug of choice is oxytetracyc Iine. 

Control 

• Dipping

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